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Thursday, 13 October 2016

Where is Nottingham Castle?



CONTENTS

Introduction
Castle History
Political Background
The Riots
The Trials
George Hearson
Conclusion



I often like to blur those artificial barriers that plague both genealogy and history, and this article will be another example. It will look at a piece of 1830s history from my hometown, but largely in terms of reports and accounts of the time rather than from a less-personal academic perspective. It’s a little long but I hope it provides some interesting insights on several levels.

Statue of Robin Hood, near the castle 

gate entrance.
Figure 1 – Statue of Robin Hood, near the castle gate entrance, 2010.[1]

Robin Hood is a famous legendary character associated with Nottingham. When the cinema depicts him in film, there is always some huge medieval Nottingham Castle providing a backdrop to the story, but where is it? Visitors to this city are often dismayed that there’s only a mansion house now on the commanding promontory castle rock to the west of the city centre.

Nottingham Castle, now a museum, viewed from the south near 

Nottingham railway station.
Figure 2 – Nottingham Castle, now a museum, viewed from the south near Nottingham railway station, 2014.[2]

Castle History

The original castle was deliberately demolished in 1649 as it had been used by Charles I as a rallying point during the English Civil War. It was later replaced during 1674–79 by a mansion for Henry Cavendish, 2nd Duke of Newcastle. However, this was burnt down during a riot in 1831, and it’s this event that I want to concentrate on.

A reconstruction of Nottingham Castle.
Figure 3 – A reconstruction of Nottingham Castle, 1896.[3]

The original castle played a major part in several episodes of English history. The following is a concise newspaper summary from the time of the 1831 burning.

Nottingham Castle, the seat of his Grace the Duke of Newcastle, so lately destroyed by the intemperate fury of the people, was one of the most interesting buildings in the kingdom, both from its antiquity, and the memorable transactions which have taken place within its walls. The castle stood on the west side of the town, on the very rock which formed the seite [site] of that important tower which the Danes so long held both against Æthered and the immortal Alfred. In “Camden’s Britannia,” the following curious account is to be found :— “Now when the Danes had got this castle, Burthred, king of the Mercians, sent messengers to Æthered, king of the West Saxons, and to Alfred his brother, humble entreating that they would aid him. This request, they easily obtained ; for the two brothers having drawn together a great army, entered Mercia as far as Snottenga-ham with a desire to fight them ; but the Pagans refused to give them battle, securing themselves in the castle, and as the Christians were not able to batter down the walls, a peace was concluded between the Mercians and the Danes, the two brothers returning home with their forces.” The present castle was built, according to the same authority, by William the Conqueror, to overawe the English ; but the celebrated Dr. Thoroton asserts that it was built by [William] Peverill, base son of William’s, for it appears that he had license from his father to enclose ten acres or thereabouts, after the forest measure, which would be equal to about fifty of our statute acres, and is the near proportion of the old Park in Nottingham. We are inclined to side with the last-mentioned historiographer, especially when we find that no mention is made of it [the castle] in the Doomsday Book, which was finished only a year before the Conqueror’s death. Many kings held it as one of the strongholds of the crown. Edward the Fourth repaired it at great charge, and adorned it with curious buildings. Richard the Third made considerable additions. One thing remarkable attended the fate of this ancient pile — it was never taken by storm ; it was besieged in vain by Henry of Anjou — it was once taken by surprise by Robert de Ferrars, in the Barons’ war, who plundered the townsmen of all they had — David, king of Scotland, was held prisoner here — and Roger Mortimer, Earl of March, was surprised in the stronghold by means of a subterranean passage, and afterwards hanged for betraying his country to the Scots for money. The vault called Mortimer’s Hole still exists. The Earl of Rutland pulled down many of the principal buildings, and sold the materials. In the civil wars, Charles the First made choice of it as the fittest place for setting up the royal standard ; it afterwards became a garrison for the Parliament, and at the end of the war orders were given to pull it down. After the restoration the Duke of Buckingham, who inherited it from his mother, the only daughter and heiress of the Earl of Rutland, sold it to the then Marquis, afterwards Duke of Newcastle, who in 1674 erected the late stately fabric on the old foundations, which his son and successor greatly improved …[4]

Political Background

At the time of these riots, the “Duke” was Henry Pelham-Clinton, 4th Duke of Newcastle. As well as owning the Castle, he also owned property at Clumber Park, about 25 miles to the north of the town, and local people will recognise his family name in streets such as Pelham Street and Clinton Street. Henry had a reputation for being a hard-liner on subjects such as the emancipation of Catholics and electoral reform.

The Industrial Revolution had made Nottingham into a prosperous industrial town from a trade point of view, but the people were generally poor. The population had increased dramatically as workers came to the town from the surrounding countryside, but the town was land-locked to the north and south due the grazing rights given to the Burgess Freemen, and these were guaranteed by a succession of royal charters. To the east was Colwick Hall, owned by the Musters family, and to the west was Wollaton Park, owned by Lord Middleton, and Nottingham Park (later the Park Estate), owned by the Duke of Newcastle together with the castle. Not surprisingly, it was these properties to the east and west that were the prime targets of the riots. As reported in Harsh Times, the town became well-known during the 19th Century for some of the most overcrowded and unsanitary slums in Europe.

The Parliament of the UK is a bicameral system, like the Senate and House of Representatives in the US Congress, except that members of its House of Lords were historically appointed from the nobility rather than being elected as in the House of Commons — such was the power and influence of the titled class. Representation of the people in the lower house was poor and openly abused. A parliamentary borough was a town which possessed a royal charter giving it the right to send two of its elected burgesses to the House of Commons. However, population movements during the Industrial Revolution had left some burgeoning towns with virtually no representation (e.g. Manchester) and some boroughs with so few people that they were under the control of a single patron who could easily bribe or dictate who would be elected: so-called rotten boroughs. Women wouldn’t get the vote for nearly another 100 years, but even men usually had to own property in order to vote.

A general election was forced when King George IV died in 1830 (succeeded by William IV), and Electoral Reform became an important campaign issue due to the tide of public support. The Tory Party won and Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, became Prime Minister. When the Opposition raised the issue of Reform, the Prime Minister delivered a very unpopular dismissal of it, and within just two weeks he was forced to resign in a motion of no confidence, being replaced by pro-reform Charles Grey, 2nd Earl Grey (yes, the one of tea fame), of the Whig Party. Their first Reform Bill, in March 1831, was approved for a second reading by only one vote, and subsequent resistance led to the dissolution of Parliament. But their pro-reform stance led to a landslide victory for the Whig Party in the 1831 general election, and a second Reform Bill was finally passed in September 1831 by a majority of more than 100 votes. The House of Lords, though, was very hostile to the Bill and their rejection of it led to violence and riots around the country; the part played by Nottingham in this will be presented in the next section.

A third Reform Bill, with only slight modifications, was passed in the House of Commons in March 1832, but the House of Lords were still not happy. Adding new pro-reform peers to this House, to even the voting, required action by the King but he would not accept the advice of the cabinet. Grey then resigned and the King asked the Duke of Wellington to form a new government, but when that failed, Grey was called back and the King relented. This was a very troubled time and the country was teetering on the edge of revolution. Finally, the Bill received the Royal Assent on 7 Jun 1832, and so became law as the Representation of the People Act 1832.

The Riots

The Duke of Newcastle was not popular, and an attempt to assassinate him was supposedly made on 7 Jan 1831 at Newark. He was travelling from his Clumber Park residence to the Newark Town Hall, via Bromley House, Stoke, where he had a dinner engagement with Sir Robert Bromley, Baronet. A mob of about 200 carrying torches waited for his carriage, initially at Markham bridge, but he actually arrived late in Newark at about 11 o'clock. The mob insulted him and threw their torches at him. Some shouted "Burke him! Burke him!" — the phrase shouted at the hanging of William Burke, who with William Hare had sold their murdered corpses to an anatomy school in Edinburgh in 1828.[5]

During the Lords deliberations over the second Reform Bill, in October, a number of telling exchanges were made with the Duke:

The Duke of Newcastle presented a petition against the reform bill from certain of the burgesses of the town of Nottingham. The noble duke was instructed to state that a great proportion of the inhabitants of Nottingham were averse to the measures brought forward by His Majesty's ministers [i.e. anti-reform].

However, Lord Holland said that he had presented a petition signed by 13,000 of the inhabitants of Nottingham, and a petition almost unanimously agreed to by the corporation of Nottingham, praying that their lordships would pass the bill …

The Duke of Newcastle said, that the petition he had presented was merely a petition of the undersigned, (Hear, hear.) When he said that the people of Nottingham were averse to the measures, he stated not his own opinion, for which he had no means of forming an opinion upon the subject, but the opinion of the petitioners. He was far from desiring to cast any slur upon the petitions which had been presented from Nottingham by the noble barons …[6]

So, those burgesses were not telling the truth, and the Duke was either complicit or blissfully out-of-touch with public opinion.

The Lords rejected the second Reform Bill on the morning of Saturday 8 October, "and the news spread across the country with almost telegraphic rapidity, and produced everywhere astonishment and consternation", although the Monday papers were not able to communicate much of the public reaction due to the intervening Sunday.[7] In Birmingham, church bells were muffled and tolled all of Sunday as on very solemn occasions.[8] This is interesting because a decisive factor in the vote was an unusual turnout from the so-called Spiritual Lords — the bishops and other prelates in the Lords — 21 of whom voted against the Bill, and calling into question the “proprietary of them sitting at all as the Lords of Parliament”; the vote was lost by 41 votes and so their vote made the difference between the Bill being passed and rejected.[9] It would seem that the class gulf was as evident in the Church as elsewhere.

According to John Frost Sutton, writing in 1880, that news of the vote was brought to Nottingham by a Pickford’s van at 8:30pm on the Saturday evening, and in little more than an hour, 19 separate requisitions were forwarded to the Mayor calling for a public meeting on the subject. On the Sunday, hundreds assembled in front of the Post Office on High Street waiting for the arrival of mail. On a coach from London, someone had remarked that “in London the Reformers were beating to arms” and this may have ignited the fury to come: a Mr. Hedderley, a druggist, standing in his own doorway opposite the White Lion hotel, on Clumber Street, was pointed out as an anti-Reformer and some of the windows of his home were smashed.[10]

The Nottingham Goose Fair had commenced on Monday 3rd October[11], and Sutton suggested that the strangers it attracted included “a considerable body of evil disposed persons”,[12] although I believe this downplayed the local anger over the Bill’s rejection, and ignored the fact that strangers could not have targeted anti-reform people as was done.

Nottingham, Oct. 10.— The news at the fate of the Reform Bill reached Nottingham by an express on Saturday evening. The consternation that it occasioned may be more readily imagined than described. On the following morning all was on the tip-toe of anxiety for the London newspapers — those brought only tidings of dismay. At dark thousands of persons perambulated the streets of Nottingham, and immediately attacked the houses of the enemies to Reform; this they did to an extent almost without parallel in that town. At intervals they were singing in praise of his Majesty King William IV. At the hour of nine, two troops of the 15th Hussars, stationed in Nottingham barracks, arrived in the Market-place, and they were hailed with “Long live his Majesty and the brave 15th.” Those veteran heroes, whose display of humanity at the renowned Peterloo [Massacre of reformers in Manchester in 1819] will never be forgotten, had no sooner unsheathed their swords, than they won and all advised the mob to disperse, which they did, but it was only to commit other acts of a similar description upon similar individuals. On Monday morning, a Requisition, which had been agreed to by the Mayor, on the preceding day, brought together a large Meeting of the Town and County of Nottingham, in the public Market-place. A stage was erected in the centre, and that was speedily occupied by some of the principal leading characters of the neighbourhood, amongst whom were noticed Lord Rancliffe, Lieut-Col. Wildman, N. N. F. Norton, Esq., T. Wakefield, Esq., the Mayor, several of the Aldermen, and other leading Gentleman of deserved reputation. Resolutions were adopted, and agreed to by the Meeting, as was also an Address to his Majesty, which, in unison with the Resolutions, was most enthusiastically cheered. The speakers, throughout, advised the people to be moderate, and wait patiently for the King’s advice to his Ministers. This wholesome advice, at such a perilous orason [orison?], the multitude were not prepared to listen to, and murmurs against the authors of the present mischief escaped their lips loudly and vehemently. Amongst the banners and flags displayed, we noticed two particularly conspicuous —

“The more those cruel tyrants bind us,
The more united they will find us.”

This motto was surmounted by a bundle of sticks, and borne by a ragged staff. The other, decorated with crape, and embellished with white rosettes, had the following — “The Reform Bill, and no Lords.” Shortly after the Meeting had dispersed, different bodies organised themselves, and taking contrary directions, moved towards such places as were considered most obnoxious. After nearly destroying a mill on the Forest, near the Race-course, they proceeded towards Colwick, the seat of John Musters, Esq., which they completely gutted, and afterwards burnt nearly to the ground. This formidable body of people tore down the spiked rails, and having thus armed themselves, they returned to Nottingham, and there they determined to make an attack upon Nottingham Castle, an ancient pile, and the property of the Duke of Newcastle. The gates were entered, and, armed with rough iron instruments, namely, pallisading, they proceeded through the court-yard to the lofty pile, and in a few minutes afterwards entered it — all was anxiety, but suspense was not delayed — flames issued in abundance ; and at nine (whilst writing the present article), it presents a flame of fire amidst the foliage of its beautiful trees, unequalled in pyrotechnic exhibitions. The amazement created in the immediate neighbourhood of the Castle was intense — and God knows where this unfortunate issue — the rejection of the Reform Bill — will terminate. Nottingham is completely agitated in town and country. Men without employment — children crying for their fathers, and wives anxious for their future welfare, and the fate of their husbands! ! !

The 15th regiment of Hussars have acted throughout this trying affair with ability, skill and humanity; and all that Nottingham has reliance upon, is that King William the Fourth will avert the mischief which threatens the country, and by doing he cannot, in their opinion, act a wiser part than by retaining the present Ministry.

P.S. — Since writing the above, the flames have burst from all parts of the Castle, and it is now one body of fire, and the utter destruction of the building is inevitable. The property is the Duke of Newcastle’s, but unoccupied. The spectacle, as I have before stated, is awfully grand, and it is the greatest consolation that no lives have been lost.[13]

Burning 

of Nottingham Castle, c1831.
Figure 4 – Burning of Nottingham Castle, c1831.[14]


The following account was from a traveller who had reached Nottingham by coach late on the Monday night.


NOTTINGHAM, Tuesday Morning 5 a.m.

Things are in a frightful state here : besides Nottingham Castle, which has been burnt to the ground, and the ruins of which are still smoking, Mr. Muster’s house has been demolished and ransacked, and the furniture now lies scattered over the churchyard. From the early hour of the morning at which I write, the town at this moment seems quiet, but I fear fresh disturbances will occur before the day closes. Several skirmishes took place in the course of yesterday between the populace and the regiment of Hussars stationed here, but no lives have yet been lost, nor has any firing taken place. The mob yesterday threatened the destruction of several houses near the market-place, being the property, as they suppose, of the Duke of Newcastle ; but they desisted on being informed they did not belong to him. Much anxiety is felt respecting the movement of a large body who set out last night with the intention of destroying the seat of Lord Middleton, but, as no account of their proceedings has reached me, there is reason to hope that they have been deterred from their purpose by the soldiers, and a few pieces of artillery, which have been placed there as a precaution. Yesterday, a vast number of inhabitants of the town were sworn in as special constables, and every wall was covered with placards, beseeching the people to refrain from acts of violence. A large quantity of placards of this description have been sent from Birmingham, which place, I learn, remains for the present perfectly quiet.

In Derby they are in a state of greater confusion than ever here; seven persons have already lost their lives. At Loughborough, also, the people are in an alarming state of excitement. I hear nothing from the north of England, though every one seems to look for some dreadful intelligence.[15]

The following is an account from the Nottingham Journal, who had previously covered the Bill with some anti-reform bias.

We meet our readers this week under circumstances of deep concern on account of the state of agitation and alarm into which the town of Nottingham and the neighbourhood have been thrown by the outrageous proceedings of a misguided mob. Whether the excitement in the minds of those who took part in the tumults originated in the rejection of the Reform Bill by the House of Lords — whether it partook of a mixed character, in which political feeling was blended with other designs — or whether the press had any influence in holding up particular individuals to popular vengeance, we shall not stop to inquire : it is sufficient to know, that the destruction of property, on Sunday, Monday, and Tuesday last, has been carried to a most serious and lamentable extent, such as was never before witnessed in this neighbourhood.

Disappointment at the fate of the Reform Bill induced the Mayor to comply with the request of some influential characters to call a public meeting in the Market-place, the object of which was to pass certain resolutions, declaratory of their determination to support Ministers in the completion of the great work they had undertaken. Notice of the meeting was placarded in the villages in the vicinity of the town, and at a little before twelve o'clock, about 15,000 persons congregated from all parts. How far this was discreet, under all the circumstances, sufficient evidence is furnished by the sequel. Relying, perhaps, too much on the influence of the speakers to rule a body composed of such various elements, and impressed with the idea that the good sense of all present would induce them to retire quietly to their several homes, no precautions more than ordinary were deemed necessary : - and it was, therefore, with the utmost surprise that the fatal truth burst upon the authorities in the afternoon that mischief was intended. All the speakers at the meeting, among whom were the Mayor, W. F. N. Norton, Esq. Col. Wildman, Lord Rancliffe, Thomas Wakefield, Esq. Mr. T. Bailey, Mr. Hopper, Mr. W. P. Smith, Mr. Alderman Oldknow, Thomas Close, Esq. Dr. Pigot, and Mr. C. Wilkins, exhorted the people to conduct themselves peaceably. Unhappily, however, their admonitions proved of no avail — a deep murmuring was heard on every side — and the spirit which had manifested itself on the preceding day, but had been partially subdued, broke out all at once with redoubled violence.[16]

At this point, the newspaper launched into an almost apologetic statement that their coverage of the Reform Bill tried to “uphold the principles of good government, to support the laws, and promote the best interests and welfare of all classes of the community”, and also that if their opinions differed from other’s then it was “not so from selfish or invidious motives but solely from the convictions of reason and conscience, having only the good of our fellow subjects at heart”. This, they said because their own offices (at 14, Long Row) were attacked on the night of the riot. The windows of the premises of George Stretton, proprietor of the Nottingham Journal, were “shivered to atoms”,[17] and Stretton retired the following year.

Their report continued:

The following summary will present at one view the extent of the damage done during the course of these tumultuous proceedings, than which nothing is more to be deplored than the destruction of the Castle, which has ever been considered the pride and ornament of our town, and the admiration of all strangers :—

Mr. Hedderly, druggist, Clumber Street — front windows demolished.

Mr. H. P Ward, druggist, Bridlesmith Gate — the same.

Dr. Manson, Stoney Street (than whom and his lady two more humane and benevolent characters do not exist) — window, entirely shattered to pieces, and part of the furniture damaged.

Mr. C. N. Wright, bookseller, Market Place — doors forced in, and the shop partly gutted, the contents being thrown into the street, and almost every pane of glass in the front windows demolished with stones and brick-bats.

Mr. Sharpe, miller, Mansfield Road — every pane of glass destroyed, and the window frames driven in; and his Wind Mill, on the Forest, had not the military arrived, would, in all probability, have been demolished.

Mr. North, Charlotte Street — windows broken, and cheese and bacon carried away.

Mr. Peter Levitt, York Street — windows and window frames shattered to pieces.

Mr. Cook, grocer, Chapel Bar — windows broken, together with some panes of glass in the house of Mr. Mercer, next door.

Journal Office — part of the front windows destroyed.

Thomas Berry, constable, Chesterfield Street — doors forced in. windows demolished, and furniture partly damaged.

— Webster, constable, Derby Road — windows broken.

Mr. Kirke Swann, St. James’s Street — windows demolished.

Mr. Bradshaw, Wharf — windows shattered to pieces, and furniture broken and destroyed.

Mr. Kenney, hosier, Wheeler Gate — windows of house and warehouse broken.

Mr. Lowe, hosier, Pilcher Gate — windows entirely demolished of both house and warehouse, and other damage done.

Nottingham Castle — set fire to in many different places at one and the same time, furniture and timber being chopped up for the purpose, and the whole reduced to a heap of smoking ruins, nothing being left but the bare outside walls. This took place on Monday night, in the midst of a heavy fall of rain. A boy about eleven years old, attracted by curiosity, went the next morning to view the ruins, and unfortunately perished, by a quantity of burning rubbish falling upon him. The stables also in the Castle Yard were set fire to and destroyed. The mob gained access by pulling down a part of the boundary wall, and seizing the keys at the lodge, made their way into the Castle, armed with crow bars, &e. Yesterday (Thursday), we are told, about six years old, Which had been sent to school, and had been missing from the preceding Tuesday, was taken out of the ruins dead, having perished in like manner to the boy above mentioned.

Colwick Hall, the seat of John Musters, Esq.— The furniture in most of the rooms, including some of the most costly description, together with some valuable paintings, entirely destroyed, and jewellery of considerable value, with some plate, carried off.

A Silk Mill at Beeston, the property of Mr. Lowe, hosier, of Nottingham, set fire to and destroyed, and above two hundred hands thrown out of employment. The damage in this instance amounts to some thousands of pounds.

The House of Correction was attempted to be entered by the mob, with a view of liberating the prisoners, when a troop of the 15th Hussars opportunely arrived, and dispersed them.

The smashing of windows commenced on Sunday afternoon, when the vengeance of the mob was directed against the premises of Mr. Hedderly, Mr. H. P. Ward, Dr. Manson, Mr. C. N. Wright, and Mr. Sharpe. On Monday, after the meeting in the Market-place, the mob directed their course to Mr. Musters’ at Colwick, tearing up in their way some iron palisades at Sneinton, with which they armed themselves. An attempt was made to set fire to the Hall, but the flames, on the withdrawing of the mob, were happily got under by the servants. Returning from thence, they commenced an attack upon the House of Correction, renewed their outrages against the windows of individuals and finally set fire to the Castle, the flames from which ascended in such immense volumes, as to illuminate the country for many miles round. Fortunately the building was not inhabited at the time, and it contained only a small portion of furniture. The outer walls of this once splendid edifice are alone left standing, & we fear will remain an eternal monument of the fury of a misguided multitude. Matters now began to assume so serious an aspect that it became necessary to swear in special constables, which was done without delay, to the number of one or two thousand. The 15th Hussars, commanded by Colonel Thackwell, had been called out on the evening preceding, and patrolled the streets all night. They were again on duty the whole of Tuesday, and during that and the following night, and their forbearance and patience were beyond all praise; indeed, we think the thanks of the town are eminently due to this gallant band, as the duty they have had to perform has been harassing to the last degree. The recruiting parties were embodied and armed, and the yeomanry were called out & stationed at points where the danger was either threatened or apprehended. The shops in the Market-place were closed the greater part of Monday, and the whole of Tuesday, and business was quite at a stand. On Tuesday morning the mob again assembled, and having consulted about what was next to be done, they set out in a body for Beeston, where they set fire to the silk-mill of Mr. Lowe, which was entirely consumed, together with some adjoining premises. This calamity will be severely felt by the numerous work-people, who have been unfortunately thrown out of employment. In their progress to and from Beeston, almost every respectable house was called upon to furnish provisions, and in some instances every morsel of food was cleared off by the mob. Besides provisions, money was taken from some, and plate, &c. carried off from Mr. Needham’s, to the amount of about £40. On their way back, a party of the mob forced their way into the park of Lord Middleton, at Wollaton, with the intention of proceeding to the Hall but a troop of yeomanry being in attendance, a charge was made upon them, and fifteen prisoners captured, who were handed over to the 15th Hussars, to be conveyed to the County Gaol. It was in the performance of this duty (the escorting the prisoners through the town) that a man of the name of Auckland, a tailor and a pensioner, received a wound in the breast, having been shot, while offering some insult to an officer, or making an assault upon some of the party. (We have heard various versions of the story : one account being that the unfortunate man was drunk, and merely making some rude observations ; another that he actually made an assault ; and a third that he was attempting a rescue : we know not which of these statements is correct, or whether there be any truth at all in any of them, but certain it is, that the wounded man lay at the infirmary yesterday in so dangerous a state, as not to be expected to recover.) The knowledge of a man being shot seems to have struck terror into the mob, for from that moment they felt convinced, that the military whom they had been led to believe would not offer resistance, would be no longer trifled with, and that they would now act against them with energy. About this time the passages into the Market-place from the different yards, were being boarded up, so that there could be no means of escape ; and it was this circumstance, added to a rumour, that the soldiers had orders to clear the streets, that induced the leaders of the mob to withdraw into the meadows where they remained in consultation for some time. It was expected their efforts would next be directed against Messrs. Kendall & Sewell’s lace factory, near the Leen-side ; but nothing further was done that night. Wednesday all remained quiet, the cattle-market was held as usual, and no attempt was made to disturb the public peace. Yesterday (Thursday) too passed off quietly, so that we may reasonably hope that the disturbances are at an end, and that no more assemblages will take place, or excesses be committed.

The damage done by these riots is calculated to amount to between fifty and sixty thousand pounds. Many persons have been taken into custody, who will undergo examinations before the magistrate this day and to-morrow.

Apprehensions of suspected characters are almost hourly taking place.

Fifteen prisoners were on their way from the country to the County Gaol last evening.

On Wednesday night some diabolical incendiary set fire to a stubble stack, belonging to Mr. William Parr, farmer, of Gotham, in this county, which was entirely consumed. A reward of £10 is offered for the discovery of the offender.

The same evening, a bean stack, the property Mr. Cole, of Normanton, was destroyed by fire. Six strange men were seen in the neighbourhood a short time before the fire happened.

It is really astonishing to perceive the mis-statements respecting the town meeting and the disturbances in this neighbourhood, which have found their way into the London papers. From the accounts in the Courier and the Albion, persons at a distance would suppose, that the Castle was an old dilapidated building, partly occupied as a gaol, and partly by old people in reduced circumstances. So far from this being the fact, it was really a substantial, well-built, and handsome edifice, with a stately front, and occupying an immense space of ground, It was in a good state of repair, and has until lately been occupied by families of high respectability.

In consequence of the disturbances, the Races. which were to have commenced on Tuesday last, have been postponed till next year ; and the anniversary of the Lunatic Asylum, intended to have been held yesterday (Thursday,) has been deferred till another opportunity.

We have heard with regret, several grooms declare, in the names of their respective masters, that they would send no more horse to Nottingham, on account of the threats held out by an infuriated rabble, that they would destroy the animals.[18]

So, a child of eleven died in the ruins of the castle, but it was later discovered that two children perished there, that night.

On Wednesday last [19th] an inquisition was taken before C. Swann, Esq. coroner, at the home of Mr. James Bagnall, the sign of the Trip to Jerusalem, within the precincts of Nottingham Castle, on view of the body of John, son of Samuel Kilbourne, sawyer, of the Rose-yard, in Bridlesmith-gate, aged between 10 and 11 years who unfortunately lost his life in the ruins of the Castle (…). The deceased was discovered by Richard Rayner, of Red Lion-street, who, attracted by curiosity, had gone to view the ruins, between twelve and one o'clock on Tuesday. He was lying on his face at the north-end of the building, with a large stone upon his back, and his legs doubled under him, and another large stone lying by his side. When taken out his clothes were on fire, his head, face, arms, and legs very much burnt, and his right foot gone, which was afterwards found with the boot, nearly burnt to a cinder.—Verdict, Accidental Death.

Yesterday (Thursday) another inquest was held before the same Coroner, at the house of Mr. Boggis, the sign of the Gate, Brewhouse-yard, on view of the body of Sydney Samuel Nix Ellerby, aged 6 years and 11 months, son of Mr. Timothy Ellerby, bricklayer, who unfortunately lost his life in a similar manner to the boy above-mentioned.—Verdict, Accidental Death.[19]

The Trials

A number of people were arrested during the riots; however, it would be difficult to say precisely who did what, and when, during such events, and so any evidence would be weak and subjective.

A Special Assize was commissioned and presided over by justices Sir Joseph Littledale and Sir Stephen Gazelle. They arrived in Nottingham on 4 Jan 1832 with a large escort, and proceeded to the crown court of the County Hall at 12 o'clock on the 5th. Their preliminaries included the swearing-in of the following noblemen and gentlemen onto a grand jury:

Lord George Frederick Cavendish Bentinck, M.P. (foreman)
Lord Viscount Newark, M.P.
Sir Robert Clifton, Bart.
Sir Robert Howe Bromley, Bart.
John Evelyn Denison, Esq., M.P.
William Farnworth Handley, Esq. M.P.
William Miles, Esq., M.P.
John Coke, Esq.
John Emmerton Westcombe, Esq.
Ichabod Wright, Esq.
William Benett Martin, Esq.
William Fletcher Norton Norton Esq.
John Sherwin Sherwin, Esq.
John Gilbert Cooper Gardiner, Esq.
Henry Machin, Esq.
Thomas Nixon, Esq.
William Taylor, Esq.
Francis Hall, Esq.
Henry Mundy, Esq.
Francis Wright, Esq.
Henry Smith, Esq.
Peter Brooke, Esq.
William Waldegrave Pelham Claye, Esq.[20]

With a list of such names and titles[21] on the jury, the ordinary folk in the dock must have thought their fate was sealed. It is hard to imagine that these noblemen and gentlemen would be sympathetic to any pro-reform feelings. Note, for instance, that the Sir Robert Howe Bromley near the head of the list happens to be the same Robert Bromley of Stoke that the Duke of Newcastle visited for dinner on the evening of his attempted assassination during the January (see beginning of previous section). However, a number of separate crown juries were also used to deal with the indictments brought by the grand jury and so determine their actual guilt or innocence. There was no trial at Nisi Prius (meaning it would be tried locally), which would sometimes be associated with a grand jury.[22]

The judge described four classes of offenders being brought before the grand jury: the first were those accused of demolishing and partly burning Colwick Hall, the second burning Nottingham Castle, the third burning and partly demolishing a silk mill at Beeston, and the fourth for riotously assembling in the neighbourhood of Wollaton. He also described the statutes applying to arson and wilful destruction which would carry of a penalty of death, not just for those lighting the match or swinging the mattock but those also present ("principals in the second degree") and anyone who previously counselled such offences ("accessories before the fact").[23]

The complete list of prisoners on trial was as follows:

Name
Age
Offence
Thomas Carlin, sen
50
Burning the castle
Thomas Carlin, jun
28
ditto
Robert Cutts
27
ditto
Joseph Shaw
35
Burning the castle, and plundering Colwick hall
William Freeman
22
Plundering Colwick hall
Samuel Spencer
32
ditto
Thomas Smith
34
ditto
Thomas Whittaker
24
ditto
Valentine Marshall
17
ditto
Charles Birkins
20
ditto
Samuel Binks
17
ditto
Thomas Harrison
23
ditto
Thomas Shelton
38
Plundering Colwick hall, and burning Beeston mill
Henry King
17
ditto
George Hearson
22
ditto
George Beck
20
Burning Beeston mill
Adam Wagstaff
26
ditto
William Hitchcock
33
ditto
John Armstrong
26
ditto
John Forman
23
ditto
Henry Linley [Lindley]
19
ditto
William Kitchen
26
ditto
David Thurman
26
ditto
Elizabeth Hunt
30
Receiving goods stolen at Colwick
Aaron Booth
19
Riotously assembling
Wm. Green
30
ditto
Thomas Tyers
19
Hovel burning, at Plumtree
Joseph Woodward
17
Stack-burning, at Normanton
John Dexter
18
Manslaughter, at Greasley
Benjamin Buxton
61
Rape, at Sutton-Ashfield
Thomas Wedgewood
28
Rape, at Ordsall
John Bird
50
Unnatural crime, at Cropwell
William White
31
Horsestealing, at Sutton-in-Ashfield
Thomas Thompson
38
Sheepstealing, at Alverton
Edwin Bamford
20
Burglary, at Ruddington
William Wright
19
ditto
William Rogers
20
Larceny, at Retford
Sarah Pawson
32
ditto
Alban Fowler
17
ditto
Table 1 – Prisoners on trial for the Nottingham riots of 1831.[24] A Thomas Grundy and Richard Branston were mentioned elsewhere in the trials, but they were not in the calendar of prisoners.

During the period of January 6–13, the indictments were put before a number of crown juries and judgements delivered. Many were actually found not guilty or discharged without trial, but nine were found guilty of capital offences.[25] In the afternoon of Saturday 14th, the sentences were delivered: Beck, Hearson, Armstrong, Berkins, and Shelton were sentenced to death; Kitchen, Thurman, Marshall, and Whittaker were sentenced to death but this was later commuted to transportation.[26]

There was enormous public sympathy for the condemned, and a feeling that all the death sentences should be commuted, especially as there were issues over the strength and reliability of the evidence. A note was thrown from the prison on the Saturday or Sunday after the sentences were delivered emphasising that the principal evidence against four of them was from a boy named Slater. The town was so averse to the death sentences that more than 25,000 signatures were collected in just three days praying for the King to extent his mercy. To put this into perspective, the total population of the town at that time was only 50,000.[27] On Saturday 21st, a breakout was attempted by Beck and Hearson using 27 yards of slit blankets tied to descend the cliff into Narrow Marsh, but it was found out. Many friends were aware of the plan and were waiting in Narrow Marsh. On Sunday, a messenger delivered the death warrants for the five. A petition of 17,000 names was gathered in less than 24 hours, praying the House of Commons to intervene by addressing the King to stay the execution until inquiry had been made into the character of the evidence. Family and friends were admitted to take last leave of them, but they were not permitted to touch or embrace them due to an iron gate between them. Hearson’s mother pleaded for access, but to no avail; and Hearson fainted with the emotional stress. On Tuesday 24th, the King's messenger arrived with respite for Shelton and Berkins, whose sentence was commuted to transportation. On the day of execution (Wednesday February 1st), the condemned took a glass of wine. Both Hearson and Armstrong protested their innocence by saying "I am a murdered man". Beck ascended the platform first and a cry of "Murder!" could be heard from the crowd. Despite his irons, Hearson ran quickly up and jumped on the scaffold, calling to friends in the crowd. He then twirled his cap around his hand, "as if in triumph", followed by his neckerchief, to cheers from the crowd. He also did a little dance before being calmed, and before Armstrong ascended. The ropes had been adjusted, and the chaplain began the service. On uttering the words “in the midst of life we are in death”, the drop fell![28]

Debate over the evidence leading to these convictions lingered on for some time, and their character is typified by a letter appearing in the newspapers on February 24th, which pointed out a glaring contradiction in the evidence presented by a George Turton against Beck, on Friday 6th, and then against Hearson “and two others” [Shelton and Armstrong], on Saturday 7th: recalling on one day that he was too confused and unaware of individuals during the events, but recalling specific details and people on the following day.[29]

In the following August, there was an action by the Duke to recover compensation for the burning of the castle from the hundred of Broxtowe. Although a recent act of parliament had allowed the injured party to recoup the value of a destroyed property, this case went into much historical detail, and even to the division of the country into shires and hundreds that took place during the reign of King Alfred. There was a difference of opinion over whether the castle was with the hundred of Broxtowe, and several historical documents were examined to determine the truth. The amount being sought was £32,280.[30] In fact, the Duke only recovered a verdict of £21,000 against the hundred of Broxtowe. The original estimate was produced by his own architect: a Mr. Robinson; the defendants called two architects from Nottingham, who estimated £15,000 “and a fraction”, and a Mr. Cubit, from London, who calculated £21,000 but adding that it would then be in a better state by more than £5,000.[31]

George Hearson

Although three men were hanged on 1 Feb 1832, I wanted to briefly research George Hearson, partly because of his courageous show on the gallows, and partly because there were no obvious baptism or burial details for him. Because his life preceded civil registration and the first national census then it didn’t leave a lot to go on.

Some un-sourced Ancestry trees linked him to a Hearson family in Arnold, about 4 miles to the north of the town, but I could find no evidence for this and I was not convinced. I needed a first rung on the ladder.

Luckily, the newspapers came to the rescue. The following short “bio” appeared after his execution.

George Hearson was a native of Nottingham, and was in his 22d year; his father has been dead nearly twelve months; his mother is yet living ; he was married about a year and a half ago, but has no family. He was put to the business of a bobbin and carriage maker; had subsequently worked at the manufacture of lace, and had always been connected with the staple fabric of our town. We never heard of any impeachment of his honesty and integrity, but he was unfortunately too fond of pugilistic contests, and was thus frequently led into intercourse with idle and disorderly persons, and in the prize ring of this vicinity, he had obtained the appellation of “Curley Hearson”. He possessed an unconquerable spirit, which nothing could daunt. His conduct in prison, generally speaking, was becoming. His manner to a stranger would appear rather volatile, his temperament was very mercurial and he was of an active turn of mind. l well would it have been had his mental and physical energies been better directed in the latter years of his life.[32]

This provides valuable information, but no names. From the date of his marriage, though, it is easy to determine that he had married Charlotte Arnold on 26 Jun 1830 at Nottingham St. Nicholas.[33] In the1841 census, 10 years later, his widow can be found at Datchet Lane — which appears to have been another name for the Back Commons, near the Union Workhouse — as a ‘Lace Runner’, aged 29.[34]

The report of the funeral procession mentioned the location of both his mother and his brother.

On Monday, Feb. 6, a few minutes before noon, the funeral of Hearson moved from his mother's house, Ram-yard [off Long Row], past his brother's house, in George-street, by Stoney-street, to the Burying Ground, No.2, Barker-gate, amidst a concourse of many thousand spectators. The funeral procession walked at a quick pace, and was arranged in a very respectable manner; several of the acquaintances of the deceased being his bearers. The Rev. Mr Pilter, Wesleyan Methodist minister, conducted the last rites of religion at the grave and the hymn

"Rejoice for a brother deceased"

was sung by the choir of singers of that connexion. After the body had been lowered into the grave, which was twelve feet deep, the friends of the deceased threw in a quantity of thorns and straw, to prevent disinterment. Amidst so vast a concourse of people, the most perfect order and decorum prevailed.[35]

The “Burying ground No.2” was one of three overflow burial grounds needed because the churchyard of St. Mary was then full.[36] However, his burial is not recorded in the parish registers for St. Mary. This might have been because he was a Wesleyan Methodist as the minister conducting the last rites was one. There was a large Wesleyan church on Broad Street, nearby to George Street, and they would not have had their own burial ground. The local archive supposedly has records for this church but I have not checked.

The name of his brother appears in a separate column as “Thomas”.[37] Note that Thomas is the only sibling mentioned in any of these reports, and so the aforementioned trees that list many siblings (but no Thomas) now look more suspect.

Given the George Street address, it was possible to determine from parish registers that the brother, Thomas, married Harriet Pryer on 2 Oct 1822 at St Mary,[38] and that they baptised the following children.

Baptism
Given name
Father’s name
Mother’s name
Occupation
Abode
14 Jul 1823
Harriott
Thomas
Harriott
Bobbin & Carriage Maker
Pump St [near Hockley]
24 Jul 1825
Thomas
Thomas
Harriet
Carriage Maker
Nile St [near Mount East St]
25 Jan 1829
John Thomas
Thomas
Harriet
Commission Agent
George St
25 Mar 1832
William Henry
Thomas
Harriet
Trimmer
George St
22 Jun 1834
Mary Ann
Thomas
Harriet
Lace Agent
Mount East St
Table 2 – Hearson baptisms at Nottingham St. Mary.[39]

The child Thomas was buried on 8 Aug 1825 at St. Mary, aged just one month (abode Nile Street), and Mary Ann was buried on 18 Aug 1851 at St. Mary, aged 17 (abode Barker Gate).[40] John Thomas later married Mary Ann Toone on 2 Oct 1849 at St. Mary.[41]

In the 1851 census, Harriet was a widow living with her two daughters, not far from George Street.

Name
Role
Status
Sex
Age
Birth year
Occupation
Place of birth
Harriet
Head
Widow
F
48
1803
Lace Mender
Lenton, Nottinghamshire
Harriet
Daughter
Single
F
27
1824
ditto at warehouse
St Mary, Nottingham
Mary Ann
Daughter
Single
F
18
1833
Lace Mender
St Mary, Nottingham
Table 3 – 1851, Hearson family. 12 Plumtre Place, off Stoney Street, Nottingham.[42]

The family was harder to find in 1841 because the enumerator’s writing was so scrawly; the surname had been transcribed as “Hanson” by Ancestry and “Henson” by Findmypast, but it equally looks like “Hearson”.

Name
Sex
Age
Birth year
Occupation
Place of birth
Harrett [Harriett]
F
38
1803
Lace M[ender]
Nottinghamshire
Houtt [?, Harriett]
F
17
1824
ditto
Nottinghamshire
Thomas
M
12
1829

Nottinghamshire
Willm
M
9
1832

Nottinghamshire
Mary
F
7
1834

Nottinghamshire
Table 4 – 1841, Hearson family. Fawn Court, off Charlotte Street, Nottingham.[43]

The details match in all other respects, and their previous address of Mount East Street ran south from Charlotte Street down to Lower parliament Street. Her widowed status is not explicit in this data but it can be inferred by Thomas’s absence from this page and from all others, and so he must have died before 1841. There is just one burial in St. Mary that fits all of the known criteria: Thomas Hearson, of Charlotte Street, aged 36, was buried on 10 Apr 1836.[44] His date-of-birth (1800) also correlates with that of his wife (c1803), making him George’s elder brother. Interestingly, George’s widow, Charlotte, married shortly after Thomas’s death, on 14 Jun 1842 to Robert Trout at Nottingham St. Paul.[45]

The following heartbreaking letter was written from prison by George on 26 Jan 1832.

DEAR WIFE AND MOTHER -- This is my last request, and trust you will endeavour to fulfil it to the utmost of your power :-- 1st. I should like my companions to be my bearers, and should like all of them to be clothed in black, black hatbands, and white gloves, with a knot of white ribbon attached to each breast, with one leaf of laurel to the same -- 2d. As soon as you get possession of my body, you will see that I am well scrubbed, until I become my natural colour. -- 3d. It is my particular desire that you will keep me till the following Sunday after my death. -- 4th. I wish that all my friends and companions may see me when dead, if you consider it prudent so to do, if I am anywhere near my own colour. -- 5th I wish you to tie my black handkerchief twice round my neck, with a bunch in front, until my burial takes place, and then to remove it, or take it off, and give it to my wife. -- 6th. I desire all my relations and friends may be requested to follow me to my grave, and some of my companions to be so kind as to watch me, and see that I am not took up, or stole, for one week, as I have been informed something of this sort will be tried at. 7th. You will see that the sexton bury me in the same grave as my child is buried in ; you will take it up, and lay it upon me. -- And now, my dear Wife, and Mother, and Family, I beg you will forgive all or anything I may have done amiss, as I freely forgive all who may have injured me ; and may the blessing of God be upon you by night and by day, endeavouring to prepare for an eternity of glory, to which place I trust, through the mediation of my blessed Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ, I am preparing.

P.S. You will have six young women to bear my pall to my last home, and give my love to my brother Thomas, and it is my payers that the Lord may prosper him and his, for the many kindnesses he hath done for me. And believe me I subscribe myself, with my dying breath, a murdered man.[46]

— protesting his innocence to the very end. The startling revelation in this was that George and Charlotte had a child; obviously “no family” in the previous reports meant no surviving family. A correlating search through the parish registers revealed a Mary Ann Hearson, baptised on 20 Sep 1830 to George (a ‘Carriage Maker’) and Charlotte, but buried 27 Nov 1830 at St. Mary, aged just three months. The abode in both cases was Mount East Court [off Mount East Street].[47]

Still no conclusive identification of George’s parents, but I will address this in a follow-up post.

Conclusion

The separation of history from genealogy is clearly artificial, but bringing them together in the same account requires some suggestion of a connection.

A rather amusing incident occurred during the research for this article that demonstrates the fallacy of just chucking in global events into someone’s timeline. I was looking at one of the aforementioned trees on Ancestry, and in particular the timeline of George Hearson. In there, Ancestry had inserted a reference to the national event “The Great Reform Act of 1832”, together with the statement “George Hearson may have experienced the political impact of the Great Reform Act of 1832 while living in Nottinghamshire.”

Well, you’re dammed right he did! The poor man was hanged for allegedly taking part in the associated riots. Talk about understatement.





[1] Statue of Robin Hood, taken 13 Mar 2010; image credit: David Telford of London [CC BY-SA 2.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0)], via Wikimedia Commons (https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Robin_Hood_statue,_Notting ham_Castle,_England-13March2010.jpg : accessed 5 Oct 2016).
[2] Nottingham Castle viewed from the south near Nottingham railway station, taken 10 Aug 2014; image credit: Jimmy Guano [CC BY-SA 4.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0)], via Wikimedia Commons (https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Nottingham-Castle-from-south.jpg : accessed 5 Oct 2016).
[3] A reconstruction of Nottingham Castle, James D. Mackenzie (1830–1900), The Castles of England: Their Story and Structure, vol II (New York: Macmillan, 1896); [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons (https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Nottingham_castle_reconstruction.jpg : accessed 5 Oct 2016).
[4] “SOME ACCOUNT OF NOTTINGHAM CASTLE”, Public Ledger and Daily Advertiser (17 Oct 1831): p1, col.4.
[5] "Attempt on the Life of the Duke of Newcastle", London Evening Standard (13 Jan 1831): p.3 col.3.
[6] "Parliamentary Intelligence: House of Lords, Tuesday, October 4: Reform Petitions", Evening Mail (5 Oct 1831): p.6, col.1; the full article started on p.5, col.5.
[7] "Monday Morning: The Rejection of The Reform Bill", Evening Mail (10 Oct 1831): p.7, col.3.
[8] Ibid., under "Birmingham" heading.
[9] "The Public Press: From the Morning Herald", London Courier and Evening Gazette (15 Oct 1831): p.2, col.2.
[10] John Frost Sutton, DATE-BOOK of Remarkable & Memorable Events connected with NOTTINGHAM and its neighbourhood 1750-1879, From Authentic Records (Henry Field, Derby Rd, Nottingham, 1880), p.399.
[11] I was taught that Goose Fair always commenced on “the first Thursday of October”, although this year’s begins on Wednesday 5th. However, that date wasn’t set until about 1880, when it was also reduced from an eight-day event to a three-day one (it’s now five). Although it now takes place out of the city centre, on the Forest Recreation Ground, prior to 1928 it was held in the Market Place (now Market Square), right in the centre.
[12] Sutton, p.399.
[13] “BURNING OF NOTTINGHAM CASTLE, SEAT OF THE DUKE OF NEWCASTLE”, Public Ledger and Daily Advertiser (13 Oct 1831): p.3, col.4.
[14] Burning of Nottingham Castle; artist: Thomas Allom, c1831; engraver: R. Sands; credit: Nottingham City Council; displayed by permission of picturethepast.org.uk, image Ref: NTGM020473 (http://www.picturethepast.org.uk/front end.php?keywords=Ref_No_increment;EQUALS;NTGM020473&pos=1&action=zoom&id=114818 : accessed 5 Oct 2016).
[15] Ibid.
[16] “THE NOTTINGHAM RIOTS”, Leicester Journal (21 Oct 1831): p.4, col.2–3; reprinted from Nottingham Journal (15 Oct 1831).
[17] "Public Feeling on the Loss of 'The Bill': Nottingham", Yorkshire Gazette (15 Oct 1831): p.2, col.6.
[18] Ibid.
[19] “Nottingham Riots: Coroner’s Inquest”, Leicester Journal (21 Oct 1831): p.4, col.3.
[20] [20] “Nottinghamshire Special Assize”, Nottingham Review and General Advertiser for the Midland Counties (6 Jan 1832): p.2, col.2; paper hereinafter cited as Nottm-Review.
[21] The “Bart.” suffix is short for baronet. The M.P. suffix indicates a Member of Parliament. “Esq.” is short for esquire, which was a rather broad title of respect accorded to men of higher social rank, but a more technical definition from this period may be found at Esquire-1830.
[22] "The Town News", Nottm-Review (30 Dec 1831): p.3, col.2.
[23] “Nottinghamshire Special Assize”, Nottm-Review (6 Jan 1832): p.2, col.2.
[24] Ibid., col.3.
[25] "Special Assize", Nottm-Review (20 Jan 1832) p.4, col.1.
[26] "Sentences of the Prisoners", Nottm-Review (20 Jan 1832): p.4, cols.5–6.
[27] John Beckett & Ken Brand, Nottingham: An Illustrated History (Manchester University Press, 1997), p.35.
[28] "EXECUTION of Beck, Hearson, and Armstrong", Nottm-Review (3 Feb 1832): p.3, cols.5–7.
[29] "The Case of Hearson, and the Punishment of Death", Nottm-Review (24 Feb 1832): p.3, col.5; letter to the editor, from "Humanitas".
[30] "Leicester Assizes: Wednesday Aug. 8", Nottm-Review (10 Aug 1832): p.2, col.3.
[31] "The Town News: Thursday, Aug. 9 – Nottingham Castle", Nottm-Review (17 Aug 1832): p.3, col.3.
[32] "EXECUTION of Beck, Hearson, and Armstrong", Nottm-Review (3 Feb 1832): p.3, col.5.
[33] Nottinghamshire Family History Society (NottsFHS), Parish Registers Marriage Index, entry for George Henson [Hearson] and Charlotte Arnold, using quoted details; CD hereinafter cited as NottsFHS-Marriages. Surname for same entry transcribed as “Herson” at "England Marriages, 1538–1973", database, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:NKMJ-LJ3 : 10 Dec 2014), reference ; FHL microfilm 504,074.
[34] "1841 England Census", database, Ancestry (www.ancestry.com : accessed 8 Oct 2016), household of Frederick Griffin (age 35); citing HO 107/870, book 4, folio 17, page 28; The National Archives of the UK (TNA).
[35] “The Late Executions of Nottingham”, Nottm-Review (10 Feb 1832): p.4, col.4.
[36] "Nottingham St Mary", Southwell & Nottingham Church History Project (http://southwellchurches.nottingham.ac.uk/nottingham-st-mary/xburialgrds.php : accessed 8 Oct 2016).
[37] "EXECUTION of Beck, Hearson, and Armstrong", Nottm-Review (3 Feb 1832): p.3, col.7 .
[38] NottsFHS-Marriages, entry for quoted details.
[39] NottsFHS, Parish Registers Baptism Transcriptions, CD-ROM, database (Nottingham, 1 Jan 2013), database version 6.0, entries for Thomas Hearson and Harr%t in Nottingham St Mary parish; CD hereinafter cited as NottsFHS-Baptisms.
[40] NottsFHS, Parish Registers Burial Transcriptions, CD-ROM, database (Nottingham, 1 Jan 2013), database version 6.0, entries for quoted details; CD hereinafter cited as NottsFHS-Burials.
[41] NottsFHS-Marriages, entry for quoted details.
[42] "1851 England Census", database, Ancestry (www.ancestry.com : accessed 9 Oct 2016), household of Harriett Hearson (age 33); citing HO 107/2128, folio 93, page 29; TNA.
[43] "1841 England Census", database, Ancestry (www.ancestry.com : accessed 8 Oct 2016), household of Harrett [Harriett] Hearson (age 38); citing HO 107/870, book 2, folio 9, page 11; TNA.
[44] NottsFHS-Burials, entry for quoted details.
[45] NottsFHS-Marriages, entry for quoted details.
[46] “The Late Executions of Nottingham”, Nottm-Review (10 Feb 1832): p.4, col.4.
[47] NottsFHS-Baptisms, entry for quoted details. NottsFHS-Burials, entry for Mary Ann Heason [Hearson].